Much like young children, two-year-old horses are still immature in mind and body. Their minds wander, and patience is still an ungrasped virtue. It is not surprising, then, to consider that those with little experience in trimming have not yet learned the skill of balancing on three legs. Any hoof trimmer is taking his/her well-being into risky territory when attempting to trim young horses that have not been trained properly by their owners. 

The truth? Most hoof care professionals are afraid… myself included.  We navigate our days with an underlying fear of getting hurt while being under a 1,000-pound animal whose behavior we often cannot control. Out of this fear, derives certain behavior patterns that only surface under this unique set of fear-based circumstances.

Fear of failure, fear of injury, fear of income loss, fear of the unknown… fear creates an escalating ladder of emotions that include:

  • Annoyance
  • Impatience
  • Anger
  • Loss of Control

As trainers, farriers, veterinarians or trimmers, when we feel ourselves moving deeper and deeper into the escalation of fear, our greater logic tells us that we need to walk away from the situation. 

Similarly, while horses lack the ability of reasoning and logical analysis, they experience comparable feelings that result in fear, defiance, anger or aggression. Their fear can derive from:

  • Lack of experience
  • Prior neglect or abuse
  • A new environment
  • A new owner, trimmer, farrier, trainer
  • An angry human

On a side note, physical pain can also cause fear and therefore fear-based behavior. In these cases, we need to identify and treat the source of that pain.

While horses may display similar behavior from one to another, the underlying reasons for that similar behavior can be vastly different. It is helpful to learn the history of specific horses to deal with specific behaviors. Studying the horse’s body language, and most importantly, interpreting the expression in their eyes, are both key to correctly confronting the behavior while avoiding major harm to the horses and ourselves. 

Below are three key primary causes for unsafe behavior of horses:

  1. Fear-Based, Inexperienced or Ignorant Horses

When a three-year-old horse cow kicks the hoof trimmer, it most likely is acting out of fear or ignorance. It needs additional love, reassurance, and training. When it jerks the hoof away or leans into the human, it may simply be unbalanced, having not yet learned to stand on three legs. A healthy dose of patience, compassion, and understanding is required. Talking to the horse in a soothing tone with gentle touches will often get the job done.

2. Hierarchical Herd Challenge – Who is Alpha?

A more experienced and self-confident horse’s approach to these new things is different. They might want to test the waters and see how far they can push in order to establish a new pecking order. For example, when a 12-year-old seasoned horse cow kicks or bites, it often acts out of defiance, trying to establish dominance over the human. This horse needs discipline and the rank order needs to be reestablished. 

Equality does not exist in a horse herd. Horses categorize both humans and equine counterparts in a hierarchy. It is imperative that we humans remain on the top of the ladder from a safety perspective.  Imitating the behavior of the alpha mare in the herd will reap good results. What behaviors do top-ranked horses display to maintain their rank, or mares teach their youngsters?  You’ll see laid back ears, biting, broad-chested approaches, and a swift turning of the hindquarters often followed by kicks. This is the language of horses. Imitating this behavior as humans will reap positive results. 

A defiant senior horse challenging for a higher standing in the herd should be disciplined within three seconds of the punishable offense; otherwise, we are yielding our standing as a leader. However, three seconds is the maximum amount of time we have to discipline the horse for any infractions. After three seconds, the horse will not associate the punishment with its behavior anymore and it will resent the human for it. 

3. Overly Aggressive and Dangerous

While only a very small percentage of horses are inherently aggressive, most in this category developed their aggression through human interaction either through abuse or through lack of training and boundaries from a young age. 

A horse that cow kicks, strikes and also bites indiscriminately is an aggressive horse and needs remedial training. 

Below a few photos of horses eyes and facial expressions that allow us a glimpse into their souls and teach us where they are coming from so we then can make an educated decision about how to proceed, regardless of our role as equine servicers or enthusiasts. 


Fearful, but attentive. By assuring this horse and demonstrating patience, I feel comfortable working on his hooves without the worry of getting hurt.
More afraid than the previous one, clearly showing a tendency to bolt or move away. Needs more groundwork before safe trimming can be done.
Flight is on his mind. Needs patience and more confidence-building work.
Fearful of the unknown and fear of pain (right) vs. inexperienced (left). Horse on the right likely experienced abuse or trauma. Both need love and compassion, touching and reassurance. Soothing talk will help both. Hoof trims can take place safely done with patience.
This is what I refer to as “naked fear.” Anything is possible with this horse… it is totally unpredictable. This horse is not ready to have hoof work done.
Fearful, suspicious with aggressive tendency. Would not work on this horse without assistance by the owner.
Fear of the unknown, but no aggression displayed. Full of worries. He is asking for patience and love to set him up for a successful hoof trimming session.
Fearful, suspicious, guarded. Slow movements and reassuring, calm talk will allow him to be caught with a halter and hoof work accomplished.
This 15-year-old has no fear. She displays contempt and defiance in its purest form. Humans working with her need to establish dominance to remain safe… in contrast these two horses below:
Calmness and confidence are shown here. The second fellow could play some little tricks with you but in a benign, friendly way.
Studying horses eyes and body language is a worthwhile time investment when working with horses. We need to be part of the herd, no matter how small or large the herd. And we absolutely need to be the leader.
By Christoph Schork, aka “The Bootmeister”





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